By Alessandro Brogi
Using archival fabrics from all 3 international locations, this primary comparative research of French and Italian relatives with the us in the course of the early chilly conflict exhibits that French and Italian goals of prestige, or status, crucially affected the formation of the Western Alliance. whereas cognizance to outdoor appearances had an extended ancient culture for either eu countries, the thought was once compounded by way of their humiliation in global battle II and their consequent worry of extra demotion. in basic terms by means of selling an American hegemony over Europe may well France and Italy aspire respectively to realize continental management and equality with the opposite nice ecu powers. For its half, Washington rigorously calibrated concessions of mere prestige with the extra titanic problems with overseas roles.
A fresh development in either U.S. and ecu historiography of the chilly conflict has emphasised the position that America's allies had in shaping the post-World battle II overseas procedure. Combining diplomatic, strategic, fiscal, and cultural insights, and reassessing the most occasions from post-war reconstruction to the center jap crises of the overdue Fifties, Brogi reaches significant conclusions: that the USA helped the 2 allies to recuperate sufficient vainness to deal with their very own decline; and that either the French and the Italian leaders, with consistent strain from Washington, steadily tailored to a concept of status now not dependent exclusively on nationalism, but additionally on their capability to advertise, or maybe grasp, continental integration. With this specialize in snapshot, Brogi ultimately indicates a historical past to brand new altering styles of diplomacy, as civilizational values turn into more and more very important on the rate of extra usual indices of monetary and army power.
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Extra resources for A Question of Self-Esteem: The United States and the Cold War Choices in France and Italy, 1944-1958
But that “tyranny” was not simply a matter of a fragmented party system. S. 12 French weakness might have served diplomatic necessity, but it actually worsened the nation’s inferiority complex. ” As a result, the French sought to bolster their prestige, thus bringing full circle the logic of French diplomacy: prestige was both a means to gain more power as well as an end in itself. ”13 It is however far easier for the weak to be intransigent on symbolic issues than on questions of substance. Among de Gaulle’s most remembered poses was his spectacular rejection of Roosevelt’s invitation to meet him in Algiers following the Big Three summit at Yalta as a compensation for France’s exclusion from the conference.
Bologna: Il Mulino, 1998; Silvio Lanaro, L’Italia nuova: Identità e sviluppo, 1861–1988. Turin: Einaudi, 1989; Guido Formigoni, L’Italia dei cattolici: Fede e nazione dal Risorgimento alla Repubblica. ), Nemici per la pelle: Sogno americano e mito sovietico nell’ Italia contemporanea. Milan: Franco Angeli, 1991. 13. Cf. Brubaker, Citizenship and Nationhood in France and Germany, pp. 1–2. 14. Geir Lundestad, The American “Empire”. London, Oslo: Norwegian University Press, 1991, pp. 31–115. Lundestad’s definition of “Empire” is divested of the most negative connotations when applied to the United States; simply he uses the term to illustrate the United States’ supremacy and influence in the West after World War II comparable to if not bigger than that of formal empires of the past.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. 15. This is a phenomenon Alfred Grosser has first emphasized with regard to France’s Fourth Republic: see La IVe République et sa politique extérieure. 3rd. ed. Paris: Armand Colin, 1961. 16. For accounts reevaluating the diplomatic leadership of the French Fourth Republic see esp. Hitchcock, France Restored; Lynch, France and the International Economy; Frank, La hantise du déclin; Jasmine Aimaq, For Europe or Empire? French Colonial Ambitions and the European Army Plan.
A Question of Self-Esteem: The United States and the Cold War Choices in France and Italy, 1944-1958 by Alessandro Brogi