By Alfred North Whitehead
Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947) was once both celebrated as a mathematician, a thinker and a physicist. He collaborated together with his former pupil Bertrand Russell at the first version of Principia Mathematica (published in 3 volumes among 1910 and 1913), and after numerous years instructing and writing on physics and the philosophy of technology at collage collage London and Imperial collage, was once invited to Harvard to coach philosophy and the speculation of schooling. A Treatise on common Algebra used to be released in 1898, and was once meant to be the 1st of 2 volumes, although the second one (which used to be to hide quaternions, matrices and the overall idea of linear algebras) was once by no means released. This booklet discusses the overall rules of the topic and covers the themes of the algebra of symbolic good judgment and of Grassmann's calculus of extension.
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1007/s12064-008-0040-1) Surowiecki, J. 2004 The wisdom of crowds. London, UK: Little, Brown. Visscher, P. K. 2007 Group decision making in nest-site selection among social insects. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 52, 255–275. 151025) Visscher, P. K. & Camazine, S. 1999 Collective decisions and cognition in bees. Nature 397, 400. 1038/ 17047) Wallraff, H. G. 1978 Social interrelations involved in migratory orientation of birds—possible contribution of field studies. Oikos 30, 401–404. , Sumpter, D. J. , Couzin, I.
1 4 0 2 –2 –1 0 1 –2 –1 0 1 –1 –2 accept rate: log (accept) 0 1 –2 –1 0 1 Figure 7. Trade-off of decision speed and accuracy for an agent-based model of Temnothorax emigrations. Predicted effects of the parameters accept, quorum threshold and k on the (a–d ) duration and (e–h) accuracy of emigrations. In each image, the intrinsic accept rate and quorum threshold are varied for different threshold steepness, k. The plots show mean duration and accuracy over 32 simulations for each parameter combination.
2006) showed that interactions between a pair of homing pigeons (Columba livia) were important in determining their navigational route. When conflict between routes was small the birds followed an average of the two, but when conflict was large one bird led and the other followed. Pairs of pigeons flew more direct routes home than did solo birds. This result is consistent with the many wrong hypothesis, but it could also be explained by birds flying more ‘confidently’ when in pairs. Experiments on larger groups would be needed to say whether quorums play a role, but in other contexts birds do make choices based on threshold responses to conspecific numbers (Collins & Sumpter 2007).
A treatise on universal algebra by Alfred North Whitehead