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Extra resources for Accid. Anal. - Nuclear Powerplants with PWRs
In the case of a main feedwater header rupture, the feedwater supply will be interrupted in all SGs. The accident differs from steam line breaks due to the fact that the water outflow leads to a rapid decrease of the affected SG secondary side water level. Thus, the secondary side heat removal capability is reduced, while cooling, due to energy outflow, is not so high. Safety aspects that challenge the acceptance criteria are as follows: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Reduction or loss of secondary side heat removal leads to overheating of the primary coolant, with its corresponding expansion and pressurization of the primary circuit.
In addition to modelling of the internal coolant behaviour, a detailed modelling of the coolant thermal stratification (the fluid–fluid mixing calculation) in the primary loops is also required. The stresses due to internal pressure, temperature gradients (as well as the residual stresses for both), cladding and welds have to be taken into account. Plasticity effects should preferably be considered. Temperature dependent material properties for base/weld materials and cladding, and changes of the material properties due to neutron irradiation also have to be included.
Reliable prediction of the flow stagnation is very complicated but essential for a PTS analysis. Various phenomena influence the onset of flow stagnation, such as coolant discharge, ECCS injection, SG heat transfer and coolant mixing in the downcomer. Nodalization of SGs and of the downcomer plays an important role in predicting the occurrence of flow stagnation. Typically, earlier prediction of the flow stagnation represents a conservative direction. Particularly for the time period close to the primary flow stagnation, the existence of downcomer cold plumes, causing the temperature and heat transfer coefficient distributions to be non-uniform and asymmetric, should be taken into account.
Accid. Anal. - Nuclear Powerplants with PWRs